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Foundation Phase

The Foundation Phase combines what was called Early Years Education (for 3 to 5-year-olds) and Key Stage 1 (5 to 7-year-olds) of the National Curriculum, and is based on the principle that early years’ provision should offer a sound foundation for future learning through a developmentally appropriate curriculum.

It brings consistency and continuity to children’s education at such an all-important period in their development.

The Foundation Phase places great emphasis on children learning by doing. Young children are given more opportunities to gain first hand experiences through play and active involvement rather than by completing exercises in books. They are given time to develop their speaking and listening skills and to become confident in their reading and writing abilities. Mathematics is practical so that children can see how problems are solved and how important mathematics is in their everyday lives. There is more emphasis on children understanding how things work and on finding different ways to solve problems.


The curriculum focuses on experiential learning, active involvement and developing each child’s:

  • Skills and understanding

  • Personal, social, emotional, physical and intellectual well being so as to develop the whole child

  • Positive attitudes to learning so that they enjoy it and want to continue

  • Self-esteem and self-confidence to experiment, investigate, learn new things and form new relationships

  • Creative, expressive and observational skills to encourage their development as individuals with different ways of responding to experiences.

  • Activities in the outdoors where they have first-hand experience of solving real-life problems and learn about conservation and sustainability


This framework sets out the curriculum and outcomes under seven Areas of Learning. For each Area of Learning, the educational programme sets out what children should be taught and the outcomes set out expected standards of children’s performance;

Creative Development
This area of learning focuses on developing imagination and creativity. Their natural curiosity and disposition to learn is stimulated by everyday sensory experiences.
Physical Development
Enthusiasm and energy for movement is continually promoted through helping children to use their bodies effectively. Spatial awareness, balance, control and co-ordination is encouraged to develop motor and manipulative skills.
Knowledge and Understanding of the world
Children will be given experiences that increase their curiosity about the world around them and to begin to understand past events, people and places, livings things and the work people do.
Welsh language Development
Welsh Language skills are developed through communicating in a range of enjoyable, practical planned activities and using a range of stimuli that build on children’s previous knowledge and experiences.
Mathematical Development
Children will use numbers in their daily activities and develop a range of flexible methods for working mentally with numbers. They will then move onto using more formal methods of working and recording when they are developmentally ready.
Language Literacy and Communication Skills
These skills will be developed through talking, signing, communicating and listening. Children will be encouraged to communicate their needs, feelings and thoughts and retell their experiences.
Personal and social Development, well-Being and Cultural Diversity
This area of learning focuses on children learning about themselves, their relationships with other children and adults.


Key Stage 2


The National Curriculum subjects have been revised and restructured. The purpose of these changes is to identify the skills for each subject and the range of contexts, opportunities and activities through which these skills should be developed and applied. The content has also been updated to ensure relevance to the twenty-first century and manageability for learners and teachers.


The National Curriculum Subjects children are taught at Key Stage 2 are:

Core subjects:

Welsh (as a first or second language)

Foundation subjects:

design and technology
information technology
physical education


Children must also study religious education according to whatever syllabus is laid down by their local authority. Our school also provide personal and social education.


Our school is using a Context Learning approach to teaching and learning which builds upon the Foundation Phase approach and allows the National Curriculum Programmes of study to be delivered through an exciting and innovative way that stimulates pupils’ learning. We use a number of resources to help plan these learning approaches – the International Primary Curriculum approaches and topics are used throughout Key Stage 2.


Please find attached WG curriculum documents for the Foundation Phase and Key Stage 2 :



We teach through a mixture of 'Contexts for Learning' or 'Topics' and discrete subject teaching where appropriate. This is the current map for topics:

Pentrepoeth Primary School